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LAMBDA uses the Medipix3 chip, which is a photon-counting readout chip developed by CERN on behalf of the Medipix3 collaboration.  The chip was designed to be used in a wide range of applications, including, as the name suggests, medical imaging. To allow this flexibility, each (55 µm) 2  pixel block of the Medipix3 chip contains configurable circuitry, including a two-stage amplifier, two sets of thresholding circuitry, two 12-bit counters and various forms of interpixel communication. For high-speed scattering and imaging at synchrotrons, the two counters per pixel allow deadtime-free readout; the detector alternates between counting photons with one counter while reading out the other. The two counters can also be combined into a single 24-bit counter for long acquisition times. In energy binning mode, photon hits are divided into 2 energy bins, which for example makes it possible to distinguish different beam harmonics. The energy discrimination is enhanced by the “charge summing” feature of Medipix3. Upon request X-Spectrum also produces high-Z detectors with 110 µm pixel size and up to 8 thresholds per pixel, to allow sophisticated energy binning.
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