With their X-ray analysis, the researchers characterized the molecular structure, or molecular morphology, of the three thermosets. At the nanoscale, the lignin components are either arranged in a T-like structure or in a sandwich structure. In the present case, the sandwich structure was found to be predominant – similarly for all three thermosets. However, their properties upon heating, which were studied with an array of additional techniques, differed. Thus the distribution of the different cross-linkers must be responsible for the differences in behavior, not the morphology. With their collaborative study, the team showed that despite the heterogeneity of lignin, it is possible to produce thermosets with tunable properties.